Lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

The perception of Cantonese lexical tones by early

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

Teresa Ching Academia.edu. 208552-L-bw-Zhou Promotor: Prof. dr. A nne Cutler Copromotor: Dr. M irjam Broersma Manuscriptcommissie: Prof. dr. P aula Fikkert (Radboud University ) Prof. dr. F emmie Juffer (Le, Learning, knowledge, research, insight: welcome to the world of UBC Library, the second-largest academic research library in Canada. T. There are many ways that cultures with tone languages may deal with the interaction of linguistic tone and music. Contemporary vocal music in both Mandarin and Cantonese stems from a common source, a new style of Chinese music that developed in the late.

Eurospeech 2003 / Geneva Switzerland

The acoustic analysis of tone differentiation as a means. A monosyllabic word like ma can change its melodic pattern in the same way as cars in English does, but the changes in melodic pattern go along with changes in lexical meaning. Mandarin assigns lexical tones to nearly all syllables of all words. It has four full tones and one neutral tone. The neutral tone acquires its shape according to its environment, but the four full tones are largely, the enigma of cantonese tones Download the enigma of cantonese tones or read online here in PDF or EPUB. Please click button to get the enigma of cantonese tones book now..

The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child Development 71 : 240 –249. Beckman , Mary E. and Janet Pierrehumbert ( 1986 ). However, the Cantonese lexical tone system does include a contrast that could plausibly have effects analogous to the effects of the contrast between shorter unstressed syllables and longer stressed syllables in English and Greek. This is the contrast between shorter ‘checked-tone’ syllables, with final /p, t, k/, and all other tone syllable types, with longer sonorant rhymes. Also

The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child development 71: 240-249. Child development 71: 240-249. Beckman, Mary E. and Janet Pierrehumbert (1986). A Grammar of. Mandarin Chinese Hua Lin Languages of the World/Materials 344 2001 LINCOM EUROPA Published by LINCOM EUROPA 2001. Table of Contents

Each tone in the data corpus was coded for being either lexical (L) or grammatical (G), in order to test the hypothesis that tone-tune association is stricter for lexical tone sequences than for grammatical tone. This yielded two-note sequences LL, GG, LG, and GL. If a lexical tone was overwritten with the same grammatical tone, it was still coded as grammatical. "Cantonese-speaking Children's Comprehension of Wh-questions." In The proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual Child Language Research Forum , edited by Eve V. Clark. 106-117. Published for the Stanford Linguistics Association by the Center for the Study of Language and Information.

Fryauf-Bertsch). height and contour) of a tone can result in changes in the lexical meaning. 2003. In addition to intonation. pitch also determines the meaning of words.. For example. 2003. four major tones are used in Mandarin Chinese (Mandarin. 2000. Niparko & Blankenhorn. 2004). The limitation of CIs has a greater impact on tonal language speakers than on nontonal language speakers. which the enigma of cantonese tones Download the enigma of cantonese tones or read online here in PDF or EPUB. Please click button to get the enigma of cantonese tones book now.

The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child Development 71 : 240 –249. Beckman , Mary E. and Janet Pierrehumbert ( 1986 ). The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child Development 71 : 240 –249. Beckman , Mary E. and Janet Pierrehumbert ( 1986 ).

Intonation patterns can convey a speakers attitude to the content of what (s)he is saying to the hearer(s). consult the Dead Sea scrolls or ancient Egyptian inscriptions). a topic that will not be elaborated in this book. the system of endings on words of the same grammatical category that give them different functions in a sentence. The prediction that Cantonese children wearing cochlear implants would have better phonological skills than children having hearing aids with a similar degree of hearing loss was confirmed. Cochlear implant usage appeared to promote consonant feature production development to a greater degree than did the use of a hearing aid.

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. [1] All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones We concluded that detection of lexical tone in Chinese was an important linguistic marker that may help diagnose children with reading difficulties in Chinese. Normal children made …

However, the Cantonese lexical tone system does include a contrast that could plausibly have effects analogous to the effects of the contrast between shorter unstressed syllables and longer stressed syllables in English and Greek. This is the contrast between shorter ‘checked-tone’ syllables, with final /p, t, k/, and all other tone syllable types, with longer sonorant rhymes. Also The authors investigated the effects of acoustic cues (i.e., pitch height, pitch contour, and pitch onset and offset) and phonetic context cues (i.e., syllable onsets and rimes) on lexical tone perception in Cantonese-speaking children.

The perception of Cantonese lexical tones by early-deafened cochlear implantees Valter Ciocca,a) Alexander L. Francis, Rani Aisha, and Lena Wong Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences, University of Hong Kong, 5/F, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Hong Kong SAR, China ~Received 25 … Mandarin Chinese is a tonal and syllabic language in which each word is composed of one to several characters with each character pronounced as a basic syllable with five different tones, including four lexical tones (usually called tone 1-4) and one neutral tone (usually called tone 5).

by Teresa Ching This paper focuses on how the acoustical differences between the ear canals of adults and children affect amplification requirements and describes efficient strategies to allow for these differences when prescribing and verifying... Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Dec 30;79(12):2270-6. Epub 2015 Oct 30. Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

This contrasts with lexical tone languages such as Mandarin Chinese where pitch is assigned at the underlying level, and is then subject to certain rules of tone sandhi (or tonal rules) at subsequent levels of the phonology. This study investigated whether cochlear implant users can identify Cantonese lexical tones, which differ primarily in their F0 pattern. Seventeen early-deafened deaf children (age =4 years, 6 months to 8 years, 11 months; postoperative period =11–41 months) took part in the study.

Dinka has low tone [`]. different pitch patterns are used in the same way vowels and consonants are used in all languages. [tə ¯] Karen has three level tones. and add a ‘declarative’ and ‘interrogative’ meaning to the utterance. Finally. the syllable want will be higher than the syllable it. and the acoustic energy created for the speech sound lies at a location above the larynx. it Tones and Features.pdf - Ebook download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read book online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Search Search

by Teresa Ching This paper focuses on how the acoustical differences between the ear canals of adults and children affect amplification requirements and describes efficient strategies to allow for these differences when prescribing and verifying... Its pattern of tone spelling was retained in the spelling of the Chinese province of Shaanxi. Tonal spelling, Gwoyeu Romatzyhs most distinctive feature, was first suggested to Y. R, by 1922 Chao had already established the main principles of GR. In 1928 GR was officially adopted by the government, GR was intended to be used alongside the existing Juhin phonetic symbols, hence the alternative

Eurospeech 2003 / Geneva Switzerland

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

Critical Survey of Poetry Chinese Poetry Poetry. The lexical tone of tone languages is associated more with the left hemisphere; however, left hemispheric dominance is not evidenced when the tones are presented to subjects without their linguistic context as hums (Van Lancker et al. 1973), which indicates that it is the linguistic function of tone rather than its acoustic properties that influences lateralization (Ross et al. 1986). In a, Intonation patterns can convey a speakers attitude to the content of what (s)he is saying to the hearer(s). consult the Dead Sea scrolls or ancient Egyptian inscriptions). a topic that will not be elaborated in this book. the system of endings on words of the same grammatical category that give them different functions in a sentence..

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

The effect of reduced vowel working space on speech

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

Project MUSE Tone-tune association in Tommo So (Dogon. Fryauf-Bertsch). height and contour) of a tone can result in changes in the lexical meaning. 2003. In addition to intonation. pitch also determines the meaning of words.. For example. 2003. four major tones are used in Mandarin Chinese (Mandarin. 2000. Niparko & Blankenhorn. 2004). The limitation of CIs has a greater impact on tonal language speakers than on nontonal language speakers. which The perception of Cantonese lexical tones by early-deafened cochlear implantees Valter Ciocca,a) Alexander L. Francis, Rani Aisha, and Lena Wong Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences, University of Hong Kong, 5/F, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Hong Kong SAR, China ~Received 25 ….

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf


This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin). Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. The prediction that Cantonese children wearing cochlear implants would have better phonological skills than children having hearing aids with a similar degree of hearing loss was confirmed. Cochlear implant usage appeared to promote consonant feature production development to a greater degree than did the use of a hearing aid.

This contrasts with lexical tone languages such as Mandarin Chinese where pitch is assigned at the underlying level, and is then subject to certain rules of tone sandhi (or tonal rules) at subsequent levels of the phonology. It is suggested that young children of the age range tested are still learning to normalize for pitch level differences in tone production. Acoustic analysis of the data thus supports results from tone perception studies and suggests that the methodology is suitable for use in studies investigating tone production in both clinical and research contexts.

Each of the rest of the lines would have its specific tone pattern. deflected. Such regulated verse also required a particular rhyme scheme. Music and folksongs From the beginning. rising (shang). the poet could use contrasts in the length or quantity of syllables. others courtly songs or … The phonological development of adult Japanese learners of English : a longitudinal study of perception and production.

operative at the lexical level, at different tones that distinguish different monomorphemic (monosyllabic) words and final particles in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese (tone languages). PDF This study examined the perception of fundamental frequency (f0) patterns by Cantonese children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 14 five-year-old

The prediction that Cantonese children wearing cochlear implants would have better phonological skills than children having hearing aids with a similar degree of hearing loss was confirmed. Cochlear implant usage appeared to promote consonant feature production development to a greater degree than did the use of a hearing aid. operative at the lexical level, at different tones that distinguish different monomorphemic (monosyllabic) words and final particles in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese (tone languages).

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Dec 30;79(12):2270-6. Epub 2015 Oct 30. Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Each of the rest of the lines would have its specific tone pattern. deflected. Such regulated verse also required a particular rhyme scheme. Music and folksongs From the beginning. rising (shang). the poet could use contrasts in the length or quantity of syllables. others courtly songs or …

A Grammar of. Mandarin Chinese Hua Lin Languages of the World/Materials 344 2001 LINCOM EUROPA Published by LINCOM EUROPA 2001. Table of Contents Intonation patterns can convey a speakers attitude to the content of what (s)he is saying to the hearer(s). consult the Dead Sea scrolls or ancient Egyptian inscriptions). a topic that will not be elaborated in this book. the system of endings on words of the same grammatical category that give them different functions in a sentence.

Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese , Standard Chinese , Mandarin Chinese , Yue Chinese , and other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry generally falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry . Fourth tone, falling tone, or high-falling, features a sharp fall from high to low (as is heard in curt commands in English, such as "Stop!"). When followed by another fourth-tone syllable, the fall may be only from high to mid-level.

Language learning and word order regularities: Children’s errors reflect a typological preference for harmonic patterns J. Culbertson, E. Newport The role of number and gender features in the comprehension of Italian clitic left dislocations This finding is consistent with tone acquisition studies in similar languages, such as Cantonese, in which children acquire tones early in development (e.g., So & Dodd, 1995; see Singh & Fu, 2016).

Prosody and Intonation MAFIADOC.COM

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

Tone Perception Ability of Cantonese-Speaking Children. Mandarin Chinese is a tonal and syllabic language in which each word is composed of one to several characters with each character pronounced as a basic syllable with five different tones, including four lexical tones (usually called tone 1-4) and one neutral tone (usually called tone 5)., Intonation patterns can convey a speakers attitude to the content of what (s)he is saying to the hearer(s). consult the Dead Sea scrolls or ancient Egyptian inscriptions). a topic that will not be elaborated in this book. the system of endings on words of the same grammatical category that give them different functions in a sentence..

The perception of Cantonese lexical tones by early

MUSIC LANGUAGE AND THE BRAIN elearning.medistra.ac.id. the reverence universally paid to learning by the Chinese, and many became teachers to the rising generation in whom they cultivated a great respect for literature in general and poetry in particular., This contrasts with lexical tone languages such as Mandarin Chinese where pitch is assigned at the underlying level, and is then subject to certain rules of tone sandhi (or tonal rules) at subsequent levels of the phonology..

208552-L-bw-Zhou Promotor: Prof. dr. A nne Cutler Copromotor: Dr. M irjam Broersma Manuscriptcommissie: Prof. dr. P aula Fikkert (Radboud University ) Prof. dr. F emmie Juffer (Le Children's overall tone perception abilities are discussed in detail with reference to the role of lexical knowledge and the potential for tone perception confusions arising from differences in

208552-L-bw-Zhou Promotor: Prof. dr. A nne Cutler Copromotor: Dr. M irjam Broersma Manuscriptcommissie: Prof. dr. P aula Fikkert (Radboud University ) Prof. dr. F emmie Juffer (Le Fourth tone, falling tone, or high-falling, features a sharp fall from high to low (as is heard in curt commands in English, such as "Stop!"). When followed by another fourth-tone syllable, the fall may be only from high to mid-level.

A Grammar of. Mandarin Chinese Hua Lin Languages of the World/Materials 344 2001 LINCOM EUROPA Published by LINCOM EUROPA 2001. Table of Contents LEATHER, J. (1991) "Interrelation of perception and production in initial learning of a second-language lexical tone" in Actes du XIIème Congrès International des Sciences Phonétiques. 19-24 août 1991, Aix-en-Provence, France. Aix-en-Provence: Université …

This contrasts with lexical tone languages such as Mandarin Chinese where pitch is assigned at the underlying level, and is then subject to certain rules of tone sandhi (or tonal rules) at subsequent levels of the phonology. operative at the lexical level, at different tones that distinguish different monomorphemic (monosyllabic) words and final particles in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese (tone languages).

the reverence universally paid to learning by the Chinese, and many became teachers to the rising generation in whom they cultivated a great respect for literature in general and poetry in particular. by Teresa Ching This paper focuses on how the acoustical differences between the ear canals of adults and children affect amplification requirements and describes efficient strategies to allow for these differences when prescribing and verifying...

The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child Development 71 : 240 –249. Beckman , Mary E. and Janet Pierrehumbert ( 1986 ). Each tone in the data corpus was coded for being either lexical (L) or grammatical (G), in order to test the hypothesis that tone-tune association is stricter for lexical tone sequences than for grammatical tone. This yielded two-note sequences LL, GG, LG, and GL. If a lexical tone was overwritten with the same grammatical tone, it was still coded as grammatical.

This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin). Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. Tone 6 (low level tone) was the most difficult to identify. Subjects' performance did not correlate with gender, age of implantation, duration of implant use, frequency of auditory training session, or general communication ability.CONCLUSION: Although some children were able to discriminate and/or identify Cantonese tones, the...

Children's overall tone perception abilities are discussed in detail with reference to the role of lexical knowledge and the potential for tone perception confusions arising from differences in fundamental frequencies for tone onset and offset. Each tone in the data corpus was coded for being either lexical (L) or grammatical (G), in order to test the hypothesis that tone-tune association is stricter for lexical tone sequences than for grammatical tone. This yielded two-note sequences LL, GG, LG, and GL. If a lexical tone was overwritten with the same grammatical tone, it was still coded as grammatical.

The authors investigated the effects of acoustic cues (i.e., pitch height, pitch contour, and pitch onset and offset) and phonetic context cues (i.e., syllable onsets and rimes) on lexical tone perception in Cantonese-speaking children. been found that Tone 1 was misproduced as Tone 2 or Tone 4, Tone 2 was mainly misproduced as Tone 3, Tone 3 was often misproduced as Tone 2, and Tone 4 was misproduced as Tone 1 or Tone 3. Besides the tonal contour errors, the tonal height (which is synonymous with the term tonal regi ster in other studies on Mandarin tones) errors were also addressed. It was found that the pitch height of

Mandarin Chinese is a tonal and syllabic language in which each word is composed of one to several characters with each character pronounced as a basic syllable with five different tones, including four lexical tones (usually called tone 1-4) and one neutral tone (usually called tone 5). been found that Tone 1 was misproduced as Tone 2 or Tone 4, Tone 2 was mainly misproduced as Tone 3, Tone 3 was often misproduced as Tone 2, and Tone 4 was misproduced as Tone 1 or Tone 3. Besides the tonal contour errors, the tonal height (which is synonymous with the term tonal regi ster in other studies on Mandarin tones) errors were also addressed. It was found that the pitch height of

ball" paradigm in which a standard sound or sound pattern (e.g., a tone or a short sequence of tones) is presented repeatedly, with an occasional deviant introduced in a pseudorandom fashion. Children's overall tone perception abilities are discussed in detail with reference to the role of lexical knowledge and the potential for tone perception confusions arising from differences in fundamental frequencies for tone onset and offset.

This finding is consistent with tone acquisition studies in similar languages, such as Cantonese, in which children acquire tones early in development (e.g., So & Dodd, 1995; see Singh & Fu, 2016). Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. [1] All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones

Tone 6 (low level) was also the hardest to identify, a finding that concurs with Ching's reports on hearing-impaired children's tone perception and accords with tone 6 was acquired later than other tones in the language acquisition of children hearing Cantonese. 20 Ching also reported confusion of tone 5 (low rising) with tone 2 (high rising) was common even among secondary school with normal Fryauf-Bertsch). height and contour) of a tone can result in changes in the lexical meaning. 2003. In addition to intonation. pitch also determines the meaning of words.. For example. 2003. four major tones are used in Mandarin Chinese (Mandarin. 2000. Niparko & Blankenhorn. 2004). The limitation of CIs has a greater impact on tonal language speakers than on nontonal language speakers. which

The phonological development of adult Japanese learners of

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

Poesia China.pdf - PDF Free Download - edoc.site. This finding is consistent with tone acquisition studies in similar languages, such as Cantonese, in which children acquire tones early in development (e.g., So & Dodd, 1995; see Singh & Fu, 2016)., The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child development 71: 240-249. Child development 71: 240-249. Beckman, Mary E. and Janet Pierrehumbert (1986)..

Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition. This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin). Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin., Tone 6 (low level) was also the hardest to identify, a finding that concurs with Ching's reports on hearing-impaired children's tone perception and accords with tone 6 was acquired later than other tones in the language acquisition of children hearing Cantonese. 20 Ching also reported confusion of tone 5 (low rising) with tone 2 (high rising) was common even among secondary school with normal.

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lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

Phonological Abilities of Hearing-Impaired Cantonese. Lexical tone pattern learning in Cantonese children. Language, Learning and Communication, 3 , 243 – 414 . [Google Scholar] , where children aged from 4–10 years were involved in a six-alternative choice procedure of tone identification. This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin). Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin..

lexical tone pattern learning in cantonese children ching pdf

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  • Tones and Features.pdf - Ebook download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read book online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Search Search Lexical tone disruption in Cantonese aphasic speakers. found that tonal paraphrasias occurred more frequently than consonant or vowel paraphrasias in their tone production study. A similar pattern comes from Liang and Heuven (2004 Liang, J. and Heuven, V. J. 2004. Evidence for separate tonal and segmental tiers in the lexical specifications of words: A case study of a brain-damaged Chinese

    operative at the lexical level, at different tones that distinguish different monomorphemic (monosyllabic) words and final particles in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese (tone languages). This finding is consistent with tone acquisition studies in similar languages, such as Cantonese, in which children acquire tones early in development (e.g., So & Dodd, 1995; see Singh & Fu, 2016).

    The phonological development of adult Japanese learners of English : a longitudinal study of perception and production. Its pattern of tone spelling was retained in the spelling of the Chinese province of Shaanxi. Tonal spelling, Gwoyeu Romatzyhs most distinctive feature, was first suggested to Y. R, by 1922 Chao had already established the main principles of GR. In 1928 GR was officially adopted by the government, GR was intended to be used alongside the existing Juhin phonetic symbols, hence the alternative

    This study investigated whether cochlear implant users can identify Cantonese lexical tones, which differ primarily in their F0 pattern. Seventeen early-deafened deaf children (age =4 years, 6 months to 8 years, 11 months; postoperative period =11–41 months) took part in the study. 208552-L-bw-Zhou Promotor: Prof. dr. A nne Cutler Copromotor: Dr. M irjam Broersma Manuscriptcommissie: Prof. dr. P aula Fikkert (Radboud University ) Prof. dr. F emmie Juffer (Le

    Lexical tone pattern learning in discriminate in all groups of subjects while the Cantonese children. Language Learning and T1(55) – T6(22) contrast was easy to discriminate in Communication, 3(3), 317-353. comparison. Nonetheless, we should be cautious [4] Eilers, R.E., Wilson, W.R., Moore, J.M. 1977. about the interpretation of results in understanding Developmental changes in speech Each tone in the data corpus was coded for being either lexical (L) or grammatical (G), in order to test the hypothesis that tone-tune association is stricter for lexical tone sequences than for grammatical tone. This yielded two-note sequences LL, GG, LG, and GL. If a lexical tone was overwritten with the same grammatical tone, it was still coded as grammatical.

    Tone 6 (low level tone) was the most difficult to identify. Subjects' performance did not correlate with gender, age of implantation, duration of implant use, frequency of auditory training session, or general communication ability.CONCLUSION: Although some children were able to discriminate and/or identify Cantonese tones, the... We concluded that detection of lexical tone in Chinese was an important linguistic marker that may help diagnose children with reading difficulties in Chinese. Normal children made …

    26/05/2018 · Rebecca$Starr$&$Alan$Yu$ on$Mandarin$&$Cantonese 1) Unexpected'correlations'(cf.$Ohala’s$FCH)$ – Femaleness$of$low$tones$in$Cantonese$personal$names$ 26/05/2018 · Rebecca$Starr$&$Alan$Yu$ on$Mandarin$&$Cantonese 1) Unexpected'correlations'(cf.$Ohala’s$FCH)$ – Femaleness$of$low$tones$in$Cantonese$personal$names$

    been found that Tone 1 was misproduced as Tone 2 or Tone 4, Tone 2 was mainly misproduced as Tone 3, Tone 3 was often misproduced as Tone 2, and Tone 4 was misproduced as Tone 1 or Tone 3. Besides the tonal contour errors, the tonal height (which is synonymous with the term tonal regi ster in other studies on Mandarin tones) errors were also addressed. It was found that the pitch height of Fryauf-Bertsch). height and contour) of a tone can result in changes in the lexical meaning. 2003. In addition to intonation. pitch also determines the meaning of words.. For example. 2003. four major tones are used in Mandarin Chinese (Mandarin. 2000. Niparko & Blankenhorn. 2004). The limitation of CIs has a greater impact on tonal language speakers than on nontonal language speakers. which